A study conducted by Kistenmacher and Robert Weiss investigated the use of motivational interviewing on men who batter. It was found that the treatment improved changes compared to the control group, which did not receive any type of motivational interviewing.
The stage of change model was used to identify if the participants recognised that they were hurting their partner. The study stated that most battering men don't believe in hitting women, however their behaviour states otherwise. Therefore in treatment, denial would have to be recognised and addressed. Moreover, when abusers are in the pre contemplation stage of change they usually blame their partners for the abuse, don't understand the benefits of changing and won't end their abusive and/or violent behaviour.
It was discussed in the literature that there is no "one best fit treatment" for abusive and violent people, however matching the best treatment plan to suit individual needs will produce the best outcome. For example, when using cognitive behaviour therapy, there is a suggestion from the therapist that the client is in action stage, when in fact he or she may not even recognise the harm he or she is doing to others. Therefore motivational interviewing may be necessary before any action is taken. Using this approach will help the client become aware of the benefits of change and the harm they are causing. Therefore the client is the one suggesting "why" to change, which in turn starts the process of motivation to change.
The study suggested that motivational interviewing should be paired with other treatment plans to increase potential for positive change and end the violent and/or abusive behaviour.
Source: Kistenmacher, B. R., & Weiss, R. L. (2008). Motivational interviewing as a mechanism for change in meant who batter: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Violence and Victims, 23 (5), 558-570.
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When cognitive decline is in direct consequence of Parkinson's Disease it is called Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Parkinson's Disease.
Firstly, the criteria needs to be met for either mild or major neurocognitive disorder, there is a gradual and insidious progression of impairment and the disorder is not better explained by another mental disorder or attributable to another medical condition. Major neurocognitive disorder includes a significant decline from a previous level of performance in either complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual-motor, or social cognitive based on concern of a person who knows the informant or the clinical; and the impairment is documented by a standardised neuropsychological test or another quantified clinical assessment. Lastly the cognitive deficit is not better explained by another medical condition. On the other hand, mild neurocognitive disorder is when the person has a modest cognitive decline from a previous level of performance and the deficits does not interfere with the ability to be independent but needs greater effort or compensatory strategies are needed to cope.
A probable diagnosis is given when there is no other contributing factor for the cognitive decline such as depression and when Parkinson's disease clearly precedes the onset of cognitive decline. A possible diagnosis is given when one of the two factors are present.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological condition causing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. It occurs in approximately 20%-20% of individuals. Major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to Parkinson's disease is categorised by slow motor funciton (movement), slow cognition, executive dysfunction, and impairment in memory retrival.
Some people with Parkinson's disease may also have Alzheimer's disease, and Lewy body disease. They are then given the diagnosis of major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to multiple etiologies
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Neurocognitive disorders. In Diagnostic and Statisical Manual of Mental Disoders DSM-5 (pp. 591-643). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
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